Social Cohesion and Trust Scale - SSS

The Social Cohesion and Trust Scale is a 9-item subscale of the longer Student School Survey( SSS), a 70-item measure of school experiences.  The SSS consists of 10 subscales measuring the following areas: social cohesion and trust, school climate, the perception of bullying as a problem at school, perpetration of bullying, bully bystander behavior, bully victimization, perceived peer support, self-esteem, moral approval of bullying, and informal social control.  The SSS is a self-administered questionnaire, and has been used with youth ages 10 to 17 years.

 


 

Tool

Administration Method
Number of Questions
9
Creator(s) of Tool
Complete measurement tool reference:
Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, s14–s21. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.018

Complete measurement tool hyperlink: http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/BullyCompendiumBk-a.pdf

Adaptation made/subset of questions selected:
This scale is part of a larger 70-item survey.
Scoring / Benchmarking
Scoring:
Before analyzing the data, code scores as follows:
Really Disagree = 0
Disagree = 1
Agree = 2
Really Agree = 3
Pass=. (do not enter any value)

An index score between 0 and 27 can be calculated by adding the scores of all questions. Higher scores indicate a better perception of school climate. Aggregate scores may be calculated by assigning a 1 to response values of 2 or 3 and a 0 to response values of 1, and then summing the recoded values. A summary score of 9 would suggest that the student feels that their school has a positive climate; anything below would suggest that the student sees areas for improvement. Students in the former category could be assigned a 1 and students in the latter category could be assigned a 0. Then the number of respondents who receive a 1 could be divided by the total number of respondents to obtain a percent of students who perceive a positive school climate.

Benchmarks:
When setting benchmarks, it is helpful to look at prevalence rates.

Data on School Connectedness by grade level, gender, and race/ethnicity are available for California (http://www.kidsdata.org/data/topic/dashboard.aspx?cat=69).

Data on school connectedness by race/ethnicity for 2006-08 suggest that that about 32 to 49 percent of students in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grade feel they are treated fairly, feel close to people, feel happy, feel part of, and feel safe at school (Data Source: California Department of Education, California Healthy Kids Survey (WestEd). http://www.wested.org/chks)
Background / Quality
This tool has primarily been tested with white students in the 5th, 8th, and 11th grade students.

Other studies that have used this tool:
Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, s14–s21. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.018
Is there a cost associated with this tool?
No
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