Knowledge about contraception – Add Health

This tool is a factual quiz about student's contraceptive knowledge, which was originally administered to students and young adults ages 15 and up, as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health).

The Add Health study is a nationally representative study originally designed to examine how social contexts (such as families, friends, peers, schools, neighborhoods, and communities) influence teens' health and risk behaviors. The study is now examining how health changes over the course of early adulthood. The study began in 1994 under a grant from the NICHD, with co-funding from 17 other federal agencies.  The Add Health study is the largest, most comprehensive survey of adolescents ever undertaken.

For more information about the Add Health survey, see: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth.

Tool

Administration Method
Number of Questions
20
Creator(s) of Tool
Complete measurement tool reference:
Bearman, Peter S., Jones, Jo, and Udry, J. Richard. (1997) The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: Research Design

Adaptation made/subset of questions selected:
The tool includes all items from Section 19 (of the Wave 1 Adolescent In-Home Questionnaire).

Complete measurement tool hyperlink:
Codebook available at: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/codebooks/wave1
Scoring / Benchmarking
Scoring:
The following scoring method applies to all knowledge questions (1a-10a).

1.Assign numeric values to question answers, by assigning a 1 to True responses; a 2 to False responses; and a 3 to Don’t Know responses.

2.Recode variables to indicate correct and incorrect responses (if correct, assign a 1, if incorrect or Don’t Know, assign a 0). Correct answers are noted below. Leave unmarked answers blank.

3.Sum all responses and divide by the total number of responses to obtain a percent score (e.g., 8/10=80%, 8/9=89%).

Answer Key:
1a. When a woman has sexual intercourse, almost all sperm die inside her body after about six hours.
True=1
False=2 (the correct answer)
Don’t know=8

2a. When using a condom, the man should pull out of the woman right after he has ejaculated (come).
True=1 (the correct answer)
False=2
Don’t know=8

3a. Most women’s periods are regular, that is, they ovulate (are fertile) fourteen days after their periods begin.
True=1
False=2 (the correct answer)
Don’t know=8

4a. Natural skin (lamb skin) condoms provide better protection against the AIDS virus than latex condoms.
True=1
False=2 (the correct answer)
Don’t know=8

5a. When putting on a condom, it is important to have it fit tightly, leaving no space at the tip.
True=1
False=2 (the correct answer)
Don’t know=8

6a. Vaseline can be used with condoms, and they will work just as well.
True=1
False=2 (the correct answer)
Don’t know=8

7a. The most likely time for a woman to get pregnant is right before her period starts.
True=1
False=2 (the correct answer)
Don’t know=8

8a. Even if the man pulls out before he ejaculates (even if ejaculation occurs outside of the woman’s body), it is still possible for the woman to become pregnant.
True=1 (the correct answer)
False=2
Don’t know=8

9a. As long as the condom fits over the tip of the penis, it doesn’t matter how far down it is unrolled.
True=1
False=2 (the correct answer)
Don’t know=8

10a. In general, a woman is most likely to get pregnant if she has sex during her period, as compared with other times of the month.
True=1
False=2 (the correct answer)
Don’t know=8

After each question, participants are asked:”How confident are you that your answer is correct?”. Answers and coding options are listed below:
-Very=4
-Slightly=3
-Moderately=2
-Not at all=1

If you wish, you may average the answers to all of these questions (1b-1b) to derive a confidence score that reflects the respondents’ certainty about their knowledge. Ideally, one would want participants to not only score highly on the quiz but to also have a degree of confidence in their knowledge.

Benchmarks:
There are no formal benchmarks for this measure. Generally, benchmarks depend on the knowledge levels of participants at baseline. For example, if participants score, on average, a 50 percent at baseline, then a reasonable benchmark to set might be an average score of 80 percent. Alternately, if 70 percent of participants score a 90 percent or above on the quiz at baseline, then a possible benchmark could be that at least 90 percent of participants score a 90 percent or above. However, decisions about setting benchmarks must be made at the program level.
Background / Quality
Other studies using this tool include:
Bruckner, H., Martin, A., & Bearman, P.S. (2004). Ambivalence and pregnancy: adolescents' attitudes, contraceptive use and pregnancy. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36, 248–257. doi:10.1363/3624804

Ryan, S.; Franzetta, K.; & Manlove, J. (2007). Knowledge, perceptions, and motivations for contraception: Influence on teens' contraceptive consistency. Youth and Society, 39, 182-208. doi:10.1177/0044118X06296907
Is there a cost associated with this tool?
No
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