Drug Refusal Assertiveness Scale

The Drug Refusal Assertiveness Scale is one dimension of assertive behavior derived from a factor analysis of the Gambrill-Richey Assertion Inventory.  Items from that inventory were adapted to be applicable to an adolescent population, and other dimensions include General Assertiveness, Social Assertiveness, Dating Assertiveness, and Rights Assertiveness (this Drug Refusal scale is derived from the Substance Assertiveness scale).

Tool

Administration Method
Number of Questions
4
Creator(s) of Tool
Complete measurement tool reference: Wills, T. A., Baker, E., & Botvin, G. J. (1989). Dimensions of assertiveness: Differential relationships to substance use in early adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 473-478. doi:10.1037//0022-006X.57.4.473. Available at: http://www.med.cornell.edu/ipr/PDF/Wills-et-al-1989-JCCP.pdf
Scoring / Benchmarking
Scoring:
Before analyzing the data, code answer options as follows:
0=Never do this
1=Rarely do this
2=Do this half the time
3=Usually do this
4=Always do this

Individual-level scores can be created by summing the response values to obtain an index ranging from 0 to 16. Higher scores reflect higher levels of skill in resisting peer influence.

Aggregate-level summary scores may also be created. For example, one could assign a 1 to responses 3 and 4 and a 0 to responses 1 and 2, and then divide the sum by the total number of respondents to obtain the percent of participants who usually or always resist influences from peers to use substances. So, if there are 25 respondents and 20 respondents are coded as a 1, then the aggregate score would be 80 percent (20/25=.80), suggesting 20 percent of have trouble resisting peer influence.

Benchmarks:
No benchmarks are available for this indicator. If you notice the percent of youth rating themselves as having good or very good drug refusal skills decreases over time, it is a good idea to assess issues with program design and underlying theory or with implementation quality.
Background / Quality
Other studies that have used this tool include:
Goldberg, C.J., & Botvin, G.J. (1993). Assertiveness in Hispanic adolescents: Relationship to alcohol use and abuse. Psychological Reports, 73, 227-238. doi:10.2466/pr0.1993.73.1.227
Is there a cost associated with this tool?
No
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