Spiritual Development relates to the development of spirituality, religiosity, or a feeling of a higher power that confers a sense of meaning to our lives (Lippman et al., forthcoming). Several studies have found a protective effect for religiosity on outcomes such as substance use and emotional distress (Bahr et al., 2008; Nonnemaker et al., 2003). Evidence on developmental outcomes associated with spirituality is more limited.
Bahr, S. J.; & Hoffmann, J. P. (2008). Religiosity, peers, and adolescent drug use. Journal of Drug Issues, 38, 743-769.
Lippman, L. H., Ryberg, R., Terzian, M., Moore, K. A., McIntosh, H., & Humble, J. (Forthcoming). Positive and protective factors in adolescent well-being. In B. Asher, F. Casas, I. Frones & J. E. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of child well-being. New York: Springer.
Nonnemaker, J.M.; McNeely, C.A.; & Blum, R.W. (2003). Public and Private Domains of Religiosity and Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 2049-2054.