Parent-Child Relationship

A parent-child relationship characterized by closeness, caring and high levels of parental involvement is a well-established protective factor against problem behaviors.  It is known to promote positive child and adolescent development, including better academic performance (Bandy & Moore, 2008; Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller, 1992).

By ChildTrends

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Sources Cited

Bandy, T. & Moore, K.A. (2008). The Parent-Child Relationship: A Family Strength. Fact Sheet, #2008-27.

Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64-105.